The Effectiveness of using Mefenamic Acid Drug against Primary Dysmenorrhea in Female Adolescents
Menstrual pain or dysmenorrhea is a gynecological problem in women of all ages, specifically adolescents. Approximately 90% of female adolescents experience menstrual problems, with over 50% of these being dysmenorrhea, which can be divided into primary and secondary types. Furthermore, secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by abnormalities in the genital organs. At the onset of menstruation, there is a decrease in the levels of prostaglandins and estradiol, which leads to the formation of arachidonic acid. Subsequently, this acid is converted into prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and Cyclooxygenase (COX). The substances stimulate the work of the uterine muscles, resulting in increased contractions. The pain felt is usually concentrated in the suprapubic area and can be accompanied by other disorders such as digestive problems, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and headaches. This can disrupt daily activities, both from school and work. For dysmenorrhea sufferers, treatment is conducted by visiting the doctor or through self-medication. The most commonly used treatment is Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), with mefenamic acid being one easily accessible NSAID that does not require a prescription and can help reduce menstrual pain. Many factors can cause dysmenorrhea in women, such as genetic, sociodemographics, and pathological conditions. However, further research is needed on the effectiveness of mefenamic acid against primary dysmenorrhea in female adolescents. This literature review aims to determine the effectiveness of using mefenamic acid against primary dysmenorrhea in female adolescents.