Research Article - Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research ( 2023) Volume 12, Issue 7

Clinical Legal Education as a Catalyst for Change in Punjab: Tackling Drug Abuse and Human Rights Violations

Raj Kumar Yadav1*, Gyanendra Pratap Singh1, Paramveer Singh2, Rahul SK1, Vaishali Verma1, Priyanka Chaudhary3, Aarushi Mittal3 and Madhu Bala4
1Department of Law, School of Legal Studies, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India
2Department of Mass Communication and Media Studies, Central University of Punjab, India
3Department of Law, Kurukshetra University, India
4Department of Law, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), India
*Corresponding Author:
Raj Kumar Yadav, Department of Law, School of Legal Studies, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, Email:

Received: 01-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. JDAR-23-113730; Editor assigned: 03-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. JDAR-23-113730 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Aug-2023, QC No. JDAR-23-113730; Revised: 22-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. JDAR-23-113730 (R); Published: 29-Aug-2023, DOI: 10.4303/JDAR/236252


The paper explores the importance of Clinical Legal Education (CLE) in securing human rights and the relationship between CLE and drug abuse. Using a mixed study method, including doctrinal research and 400 direct interviews in Punjab State of India (Bharat), the research reveals that CLE can effectively combat drug abuse and protect basic human rights like life, education, food, and medication. The study highlights the need for due care and guidance in combating drug abuse, making students more professional, skilled, and knowledgeable having concern for the society. The social implications of this research are significant, as drug abuse is a significant challenge in our societies. The paper emphasizes the need for preventive education on drug abuse and the significant social implications of this research. Media also plays a crucial role in raising awareness and promoting a society that shuns evil and promotes good for all.


Drug and substance abuse; Education; Human rights legal mechanism; Society; Law schools; Preventive education


Education is that which makes the world free from evil [1]. The interest of individuals has given birth to civil societies which have later shaped as democratic system. Global civil society offers much potential for enhancing security, equity and democracy in the contemporary world [2]. The democracy is considered as most popular form of government across the world [3]. Judicial system is regarded as backbone of a democratic system [4]. Successfulness of judicial system is more or less dependent on legal education [5]. More effective the right kind of legal education, more effective the concerned judicial system of a country will be there [6]. Professional ethics is the outcome of synthesis of legal and moral principles governs the judicial system multidimensionality and also secures its effectiveness [7]. Greatness of judicial system actually lies in way of interaction, how advocates interact with common people to resolve their problems and issues which is borrowed from legal education. Law determines the rights and duties as its subject matter and a student of law has to be trained in professional skills in order to meet the challenges of globalization and universalization of law [8].

Education is a tool of empowerment of various segments of society. It stimulates the social transformation and gives strength to its nationals. John Dewey argued that education is an unavoidable requirement of a democratic system [9]. He argued that in a democratic state citizen are required to understand and synthesize the basic values to secure the welfare of society at large [10]. The ultimate objective of education is to secure the maximum happiness, address and strengthen the rights of individuals, promoting the humanism, securing democratic values by honouring the life, liberty and procedural fairness. Equal access to the legal system has long been a concept. Even though the access to justice movement did not take off too early, but it has started to take shape at the end of 14th century. The idea of lawyers offering free legal services to the needy dates back to King Henry VII’s 1495 law, which required a judge seeking justice to appoint an advocate to the poor. This may be considered one of the earliest attempts to pursue equality before the law, and the concept spread throughout the majority of the British colonial empire [11].

Stephen Wexler states in an essay that “poor people are always bumping with sharp legal things” [12]. We are living in an era of rights and duty where wars of interest are fought in court rooms. Law professional are an important part of such justice delivery system. They are rooted with the interest of common people and ethically responsible to secure easy access to justice. It has characterized the humanitarian approach of litigation and has given birth to development of human rights [10]. The professionals have given birth to concept of legal clinics at the time of addressing the social and interest-based problems of common people. This protective and transformative role of law professionals have given birth to need of more skilled, professional and knowledge new generation law experts. Expertise could not be secured without the quality practice. The human right revolution has specifically taken place after the advent of UNHRC in year 1948 [13]. But there arose a need for quality advocates to actualize the protective and development-oriented approach [14]. The shortage of public oriented law professionals is a subject of great concern. Professor Upendra Buxi in this context stated that “there is no new generation of lawyers coming up in India who will work to help the underprivileged get an access to justice” [15]. He further argued that the cause of this may be due to a failure on the part of law schools to implement the right curriculum, which would place both public service and social service together at the forefront of young law students’ education rather than promoting the development of corporate culture. He further stated that:

“What do generations signify? Growth in self-reflection and wisdom and capacity to serve the underprivileged.”

Thus, the purpose of clinical legal education is to foster in law students a sense of civic responsibility and public passion. Global legal education’s goal is to have a minimal influence rather than produce lawyers who can “practice” in numerous jurisdictions. In this way, the goal is to develop intelligent individuals who can effectively resolve disputes across borders [16]. Thus, given the expanding globalization of legal education and research, it is crucial to advance clinical legal education through institutional procedures today.

Clinical legal education could be more specifically designed and used to make the students more professionals, to combat with socio-legal evils like drug abuse, other several alike specific offences (Table 1).

Table 1: Clinical legal education in Punjab

Clinical legal education in Punjab

Objective To tackle drug abuse and address human rights violations
Definition Clinical legal education involves experiential learning, where law students engage in real legal cases, providing, legal aid, and advocacy under faculty supervision.
Key elements Real-world legal practice, faculty supervision and mentorship, promoting access to justice.
Benefits Skill development for law students, increased access to legal services for vulnerable populations, promotes social justice and human rights awareness
Components Legal clinics, pro bono legal services, advocacy and policy work, collaboration with NGOs and community organizations
Drug abuse Legal clinics can assist individuals facing drug Intervention charges, provide rehabilitation support, and advocate for drug policy reform.
Human rights Clinical legal education can focus on human rights protection cases, such as cases of police brutality, forced disappearances, and discrimination.
Case studies Provide examples of successful clinical legal education initiatives in Punjab addressing drug abuse and human rights violations.
Challenges Limited resources for clinical programs, resistance to legal reforms and policy changes, ensuring the sustainability of clinical programs
Recommendations Increased funding and support for clinical legal education programs in Punjab, collaboration between universities, legal practitioners, and government agencies for comprehensive legal reform efforts, monitoring and evaluating the impact of clinical education initiatives on drug abuse and human rights violations in Punjab

Objective of the study

• To provide elementary understanding of India’s clinical legal education system.

• To explain how law colleges and their Legal Aid Clinics work together to contribute and promote justice.

• To understand the abuse of human rights due to drug abuse and role of preventive education in transformation of living of drug victims.

• To suggest, how the legal aid clinics could be used as drug law clinic which can lead multidimensional change?


This paper aims to develop an innovative clinical legal education concept, specifically in the context of drug law clinics. The Indian government has a significant task to improve legal education and shape it professionally to combat social evils like drug abuse and special crimes. The paper addresses challenges in the effectiveness of quality clinical courses and focuses on improving the professional course to be more productive and problem-oriented. This would shape the concept of clinical legal education, making students more professional and self-dependent. The goal of social transformation could be achieved through the productive output of trained law professionals, and the development of a drug law clinic could help tackle drug abuse.

Research Methodology

This study uses a mixed approach, examining existing literature, an empirical study of 400 legal professionals of Punjab State in India (Bharat). The goal is to identify issues and constraints in Clinical Legal Education in India, including drug abuse and drug law clinics. The study emphasizes the advantages and prospects of these areas, with professionals and authorities agreeing on the importance of these aspects.

Clinical legal education-meaning

Legal education has evolved significantly since 1994, incorporating practical skill training and clinical learning. Modern educational methods include active learning, self-assessment, and empathy towards clients, social justice pursuit, diversity recognition, collaborative leadership, and digital technology. Clinical scholarship plays a vital role in modernizing first-year law courses, enhancing legal education and benefiting society [17]. Clinical methods bridge the gap between theory and practice, preparing students for legal practice and enhancing legal education overall [18].

Practicing problem-solving is a crucial aspect of acquiring skills, and research can significantly improve learning and address various issues related to law and justice [19,20]. Clinical legal education is a multi-disciplined, multipurpose education that combines theory and practice, developing human resources and idealism needed to strengthen the legal system [21,22]. A lawyer produced from such education can contribute to national development and social change in a more constructive manner [14].

A “law clinic” is a learning environment where students identify, research, and applies knowledge in a setting that replicates the world where it is practice. Professor N.R. Madhava Menon emphasizes that Clinical Legal Education does not aim to create future lawyers who are mere craftsmen manipulating advocacy skills in the traditional role of conflict resolution in court [23]. Instead, it focuses on the learners and the process of learning. Experiential learning, or “learning by doing,” is the basis of clinical legal education [24]. Students in law clinics actively represent clients and work on projects, fostering close relationships and communication skills with diverse groups. This approach helps develop inclusive policies in legal practice and as judges or lawmakers, as students gain insight into the lives of marginalized and underprivileged populations, enabling them to develop more inclusive policies in their own legal practice [25].

Types of law clinics

Law Clinics are of various types and it may be named as per need of the beneficiaries as under:

1. In-house real client clinics, are housed in law schools, supervised and controlled, offering advice alone or with help to clients. They can function as full-service law firms or paralegal services providers [26].

2. Out-house clinics allow students to practice law outside of school, offering advice as a means of operation. These clinics may be set up in law firms, courtrooms, or solicitor’s offices, and are managed by trade union councils and other non-statutory organizations. They can function as full-service law firms or paralegal services providers [27].

3. Simulation clinics are a method of teaching students about legal practice, allowing them to experience the full course of a case from initial instructions to court hearings. These sessions can be conducted as intensive courses or weekly slots throughout the academic year [28]. 4. Community legal clinics offer free or low-cost legal services to underserved or low-income communities, focusing on areas like landlord-tenant disputes, consumer rights, family law, and immigration issues, aiming to make legal assistance accessible to those unable to afford traditional representation [29].

5. Criminal defense clinics enable students to represent clients facing criminal charges, providing practical experience in criminal law, defense strategies, and court procedures [30].

6. Civil rights clinics focus on constitutional law and civil liberties cases, involving students in cases like police misconduct, freedom of speech, and discrimination, advocating for individuals whose rights have been violated [31].

7. Environmental law clinics handle cases involving environmental protection and sustainability, allowing students to work on pollution control, conservation, land use, and environmental justice [32].

8. Immigration law clinics assist immigrants and refugees with visa applications, deportation defense, asylum claims, and citizenship applications, providing students with experience in immigration law and advocacy [33].

9. Family law clinics handle complex legal matters like divorce, child custody, domestic violence, and child support, with students assisting clients in navigating these emotionally charged legal situations [34].

10. Intellectual property clinics assist clients in safeguarding their intellectual property rights, including trademarks, patents, copyrights, and trade secrets, with students providing assistance in trademark registrations, patent applications, and IP litigation [35].

11. Business and transactional clinics focus on commercial law and business transactions, helping entrepreneurs, startups, and small businesses with contract drafting, business formation, and regulatory compliance [36].

12. Health law clinics tackle healthcare legal issues like patient rights, medical ethics, regulation, and litigation, with students potentially handling medical malpractice or health insurance disputes [37].

13. International human rights clinics advocate and litigate against global human rights violations, involving international law, human rights treaties, and issues like war crimes or genocide [38].

14. Virtual Legal Aid Clinic-change is inevitable, particularly in clinical legal education. Educators have a choice to observe or actively shape the future passively. The article strongly recommends the latter approach, encouraging legal educators to seize control and positively influence the direction of change starting now [39].

Thus, Law schools supervise in-house client clinics, which offer advice or services. Out-house clinics allow students to practice law outside school. Simulation clinics teach students about legal practice. Community legal clinics provide free or low-cost services, while criminal defense clinics offer practical experience. Civil rights, environmental, immigration, family, intellectual property, business, health, and international human rights clinics handle various legal matters.

Emergence of clinical legal education

Clinical Legal Education has traditionally placed an emphasis on instilling in students a sense of social responsibility. Since the early 20th century, the idea of clinical legal education was included into the educational process. A Russian professor named Alexander Lyublinsky first suggested clinical legal education in law, along the same lines as in medicine, in 1901 [40]. The United States was the first country where clinical legal education took off, followed shortly by Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

When reviewing the historical evolution, it is evident that 2 significant influences influenced the development:

• An increasing demand for legal assistance, and

• Reforming legal education and implementing a more pragmatic approach to practicing law.

Any practical training appeared out of place at law school, with the exception of preparing for a moot court, as the study of law put the thought of practicing law to the background. Legal Education remained connected with “Law School” and not a “Lawyer School” [41]. US practicing professionals began to voice their concerns about the lack of practical experience in the legal education they received as early as the beginning of 1900. Comparing legal education to technical or medical education, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching remarked in 1921 that legal education lacks practical training. The educational change that resulted in the inclusion of clinical legal education in many US law schools throughout the 1960s and 1970s can be said to have its genesis in this. It may also be argued that social issues like the Vietnam War, women’s rights, and the demands for civil rights and poverty relief led to the development of the modern clinical legal education. These causes served as a spur for the provision of legal services. The Ford Foundation made the decision to finance the Council of Legal Education and Professional Responsibility at the same time, helping to provide the framework for clinical legal education as we know it today by allocating funds to law schools to establish clinical legal education programmes [42].

In parallel with the civil rights movement and the country’s focus on reducing poverty, clinical programmes in American law schools rose to prominence in the 1960s [43]. In 1964, as part of his efforts to combat poverty, then-President Lyndon Johnson put into effect the Equal Employment Opportunity Act [44]. Due to this Act, the Office of Economic Opportunity financed various legal aid initiatives in 1970 that involved setting up law offices in underprivileged areas and staffing them with attorneys and paralegals.

Since that time, clinical legal education has been a crucial part of the school curriculum at nearly all-American law schools. There, such clinics are often small law school classrooms instructed by full-time faculty where the students develop lawyering skills by doing legal services, typically on behalf of underprivileged or underprivileged individuals and communities. Some law schools encourage students to engage in clinics or grant students the opportunity to complete specific graduation requirements in order to provide their graduates with better tools to excel in the legal profession. The Ford Foundation also provided significant funding for other Clinical Legal Education initiatives in countries like Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, and South Africa, The American Bar Association’s Central and Eastern European Law Initiative, sponsored in 1990, is the organization’s largest undertaking [15,45-48]. Under the banner of “access to law and justice” or “law reform” efforts, the World Bank, International Development Bank, and other international financial institutions have financed a wide range of clinical legal education programmes. In the region of Central and Eastern Europe, there were numerous refugee law clinics run by the UNHCR and LARC (Legal Assistance through Refugee Clinic) [49,50]. The mission of the Global Alliance for Justice Education (GAJE) is to transform legal education into justice education. It arranges conferences every 2 years and invites clinical legal educators from all around the world [51].

As a result, the idea of clinical legal education has developed and helped to create a new pedagogical for the study of law. It substantially contributes to closing the gap between legal theory and actual practice, or at least the setting in which they function.

Practicability of clinical legal education: Serving the World

Clinical legal education is a crucial aspect of legal education in both developed and emerging nations [52]. It is essential for law to interact with society and other legal disciplines, as lawyers fill various responsibilities in modern life. Law connects various aspects of human life, making it crucial for legal institutions to provide appropriate education. Clinical legal education helps in addressing social evils like corruption, crimes, and drug abuse, as law professionals and scholars remain closer to society.

Law can help the weaker sections of society by reducing conflict of interest and promoting welfare. Clinical legal education can bring revolution by minimizing conflicts among different groups of society. However, excessive technology in the law can lead to people getting caught in the web of complex laws, making it difficult to imagine justice. Clinical legal education can help address this technical problem by focusing on specific areas like tax law, marriage law, criminal law, election law, maritime law, human rights law, and drug law. There is a need to make clinical legal education more job-oriented and specific, addressing special socio-legal problems to increase efficiency and professionalism.

Clinical legal education as a tool to handle drug abuse

Drug abuse and addiction are a global issue that impacts society and prevents nations from developing as they should. About 2,50,000 deaths worldwide are related to drug usage, with 5% of people aged 15 to 64 using it. This is particularly concerning for developing nations like India, where issues like poverty, unemployment, and overpopulation already exist. The United Nations Office on Drug and Crime’s World Drug Report 2021 highlights the growing abuse of prescription medications and Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) in emerging countries. The world’s drug use reached 284 million users in 2020, with a 26% growth from the previous 10 years. The term “drug and substance abuse” has emerged due to the increasing use of pharmaceuticals, which can alter the body’s functions but are not necessary for normal health maintenance. Drug use refers to the use of medications to treat ailments, prevent diseases, and enhance physical well-being, while drug abuse is defined as the use of drugs for purposes other than medical treatment that impairs physical or mental functioning. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) defines illegal drug use as inappropriate use of legal drugs [53]. Drug abuse is the misuse of illegal drugs, prescription or overthe- counter medications, or chemicals for a higher purpose than prescribed by a medical practitioner. This maltreatment can lead to addiction, which starts with smaller amounts but increases as the user becomes more dependent. This dependence can be physical or psychological, and the individual may feel uncomfortable without drugs. It is crucial to follow medical guidelines when using drugs.

Drug abuse causes

There are several important causes behind the evil of drug abuse some of them are as following:

Biotic factors: Family history, previous psychiatric condition, genetic susceptibility, are some of the most important biological factors. Cravings and withdrawal symptoms Factors of biochemistry are certain factors which stimulates the consumption of narcotic drugs.

Psychological factors: Curiosity as a novelty, social rebelliousness, and curiosity as a novelty Early start-up, Control issues, It’s all about sensation. (I’m on a high), Low self-confidence (Anomie), Ineffective stress management, to relieve fatigue or boredom, or to escape reality, many turn to childhood loss or trauma. Psychological anguish, lack of interest in traditional goals.

Social factors: The influence of others Role-Modeling is one of the most essential factors. Conflicts, easy access to alcohol and drugs (usually intra familial), Religious considerations, Insufficiency of social or familial support. The most important reasons that fuel the scourge of drug usage across the country are social attitudes and rapid urbanization.

Common effects of drug abuse

Drug abuse brings several changes with itself which are very apparent. Restlessness, increased heart rate, change in mental functioning, physical damage etc. are very common symptoms which are easily accessible [54]. Drug usage can lead to weight loss, risky behavior, and a loss of interest in creative activities and hobbies. Chronic drug use can result in health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, kidney damage, liver illness, HIV, Hepatitis B, and C, as well as fatal accidents and serious medical conditions. Addiction to drugs also negatively impacts social and familial life, leading to job loss, family problems, divorce, child neglect, and criminal offenses. Drug addicts often associate with anti-social members of society, leading to a life of crime and anti-social behaviours.

Treating drug dependence is difficult, requiring extensive medical and psychological involvement. The likelihood of relapse is significant, known as Social Stigma. Even after quitting the substance, societal acceptance can be challenging, as the individual is labeled as a “drug addict.” Many addicts lose or stay unemployed, leading to long-term rehabilitation facilities and potential financial consequences, such as social security and retirement benefits [55]. Over a lifetime, addiction can cost addict thousands of dollars in lost productive potential.

The drug problem has had an impact on drug laws and practices. Tobacco, khat, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants, and tranquillizers are the most often abused drugs in secondary schools. As a result, it looks to be a major societal issue that can only be solved via joint efforts.

Drug abuse and human rights

The Indian Constitution, rooted in cultural origins, is a fundamental document that guarantees the rights of individuals to life, liberty, and equality. These rights are inherent to human beings and cannot be violated without causing severe injustice. The rights to life, liberty, and equality are reflected in international accords, including those for drug users. These rights include the right to life, health, medical assistance, privacy, freedom from torture, adequate food, clothing, housing, and standard of living, as well as the right to social security, physical and mental health, and freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention, and exile. However, the current situation presents a significant challenge for mankind in ensuring the protection of human rights. Flavia Pansieri, Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights said during a panel discussion on issues related to human rights and drug policy that “It is clear that the world’s drug problem impacts the enjoyment of a wide range of human rights, often resulting in serious violations” [56].

Drug suppliers and fundamentalists are violating human rights, blocking social development and affecting the rights of children, women, and indigenous peoples. This violation blocks the progress of society and nation, as outlined in the United Nations Charter’s ideals of “universal brotherhood” and “Live and let others live.” Addressing the global drug problem is crucial for societal progress.

Clinical legal education: A tool to combat with social evil of drug abuse

Drug abuse is a significant sociolegal problem that requires effective remedial measures. Advocates and law scholars play a crucial role in addressing this problem by dispersing preventive education and assisting in conserving human rights. In India, non-school and street children are the most likely perpetrators of substance abuse diseases. Community- based prevention efforts have been focused on these young people, but recent surveys show that substance use patterns among school-aged and non-school-aged/street youth are more similar than dissimilar. School-aged children drank and smoked more than adults.

Preventive education is crucial in addressing this problem, as it helps shape society’s youth and students. By providing preventive education during college years, young people are better equipped to avoid using illegal drugs and learn from successful habits. This can be achieved through efforts from parents, teachers, students, NGOs, governments, and other stakeholders. The findings of interviews conducted by researchers in this regard are important in this regard. The interviews were based on questionnaire which has given following categories of output.

Data analysis and interpretation

Questions related to benefits of being part of Drug law awareness clinic:

1. Being part of Drug law awareness clinic is effective for a valuable learning experience.

2. Being part of Drug law awareness clinic is effective to develop Problem solving experiences

3. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to contribute in empirical research

4. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to add in available literature

5. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to strengthen the drug preventive mechanism

6. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to increase the interest in pro bono work in future

7. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to develop dialogue among new generation

8. Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective in progress of society.


Q1: Participation and its effectiveness denotes about the successfulness of any programme. In this context, 308 respondents have asserted that participating in the Drug Awareness Law Clinic can be a valuable learning experience. On the other hand, only 20 respondents were not agreeing with this fact. Other than these 72 respondents remained neutral towards the fact that whether it could be a better learning experience, while dealing with drug law clinic.

Q2: Being part of Drug law awareness clinic is effective to develop Problem solving experiences. Students dealing through legal aid clinic designed as drug law clinic learn several practical skills which improves their problem-solving skill and experience. In this context 82% respondents have responded in positive manner that there is great possibility of enhancement in problem solving skill through the drug law clinics. Only 6% respondents are found who have a dissenting response towards it. Other than these 12% respondents have registered a neutral response towards the hypothesis.

Q3: Drug Law awareness clinics significantly contribute to empirical research, with 264 of respondents strongly agreeing, 96 simply agreed and 16 remaining neutral. These clinics help students improve their knowledge base and research capacity by addressing practical problems and applying various formulations and theories. The trained professionals can conduct quality action research, benefiting society greatly. Only 24 respondents responded with negative manner.

Q4: Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to add in available literature because good quality research will definitely add in quality literature. In this context 320 respondents have asserted positively. Only 80 respondents are such who have either dissented with it or remained dormant or neutral. Therefore, it comes out of research that introducing the drug law awareness clinic could be a revolutionary step and will lead the social transformation.

Q5: Drug preventive mechanism and drug law clinics-preventive measures itself constitutes a complex framework with the involvement of various authorities and agencies. It is very possible that being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to strengthen the drug preventive mechanism. In this context 8% respondents have given either neutral or dissenting response. On the other hand, 82% respondents have asserted positively as it will strengthen the drug preventive mechanism and 10% respondent disagree with this. On one hand, it will make the public at large aware of adverse consequences of drug abuse and on another hand well trained professionals will help in rehabilitation, integration of drug victims.

Q6: Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to increase the interest in pro bono work in future. It will prepare the ladders for gradual future climbing with the help of existing literature and research works. Professionals themselves become so capable that they could start working on issue of drug abuse or a like issue. In this context 86% professionals have asserted positively that it is effective to increase the interest in pro bono work in future, only 5% respondents asserted negatively and only 9% respondents remained silent.

Q7: Being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective to develop dialogue among new generation. It is highly possible because improvement in skill will also improve the communication skill of concerned group of professionals. Awareness empowers the society and it prepares a frequent environment of multidimensional dialogue among the trained professionals, common people of society, drug victims and other pressure groups involved in drug preventive mechanism. In this context only 2% respondents asserted negatively and 3% remained silent and remaining all 95% respondent agreed that it will develop dialogue among new generation.

Q8: Social progress could be possible with the progress and multidimensional empowerment of its members. It includes social, educational, financial empowerment. An addicted person creates the burden on society and state administration, health infrastructure. It becomes important to bring those people in mainstream of society which is not possible without the effective awareness system. Drug law awareness clinic can play an important role here by making the public at large aware, securing rehabilitation and social integration. In this context 82% law professionals have asserted positively, 9% remained silent and 9% disagree with the context that being part of Drug Law awareness clinic is effective in progress of society (Table 2) (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Benefits of being part of Drug law awareness clinic

Table 2: Response to the questions related to benefits of being part of drug law awareness clinic

Question Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total respondent
Valuable learning experience 8 12 72 160 148 -
Develop problem solving experiences 8 16 48 232 96 -
Contribute in empirical research 12 12 16 96 264 -
Add in available literature 12 20 48 160 160 400
Strengthen the drug preventive mechanism 16 24 32 244 84 -
Increase the interest in pro bono work in future 8 12 36 232 112 -
Develop dialogue among new generation 0 8 12 240 140 -
Progress of society 16 20 36 168 160 -
Source: Field survey data

Q9: Whether working on issues of drug victims will improve the learning working with practical issues and trying to resolve them gradually brings the improvement in learning process. Practical problems provide the room for application of theoretical portion of learning. In this question 44% respondents agree and 42% have registered their response as they are strongly agreeing with fact that working on issues of drug victims will improve the learning. 5% respondents were silent on the same point; 9% respondents have responded that they do not agree with the abovementioned fact (Table 3) (Figure 2).

Table 3: Working on issues of drug victims will improve the learning

Total number of respondents Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
400 16 20 20 176 168
Source: Field survey data

Q10: Whether being part of the Drug Law Awareness Clinic will be effective to improve understanding on narcotic drug related issues-being part of the Drug Law Awareness Clinic will be effective to Improve understanding on narcotic drug related issues because a learning which is based on problem solving technique induces the participants to learn more new things. When the participant student understands something, he starts applying it. In this regard only 20 respondents have registered their response in a negative manner. While 72 respondents remained neutral. 308 respondents remained agree with the fact that being part of the Drug Law Awareness Clinic will be effective to improve understanding, among these 240 simply agree and 68 strongly agree (Table 4) (Figure 3).

Table 4: Improvement in level of understanding (Q10)

Total number of respondents Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
400 8 12 72 240 68
Source: Field survey data


Figure 2: Working on issues of drug victims will improve the learning


Figure 3: Improvement in level of understanding (Q10)

Q11: Whether volunteer will feel support by supervisor at the drug law awareness clinic-in a formal legal aid clinic, students are usually supervised by the professors of concerned law college and institution. The supervisor trains the scholars for various issues and possible future practical problems. In this regard it is quite possible that volunteer will feel supported by supervisor at the drug law awareness clinic. Here 316 respondents have quoted to be agreeing with the fact that they will feel supported while working with drug law awareness clinic. Only 36 respondents have asserted negatively while 12% respondents have quoted the dormant or neutral response (Table 5) (Figure 4).


Figure 4: Improvement in level of understanding (Q11)

Table 5: Improvement in level of understanding (Q11)

Total number of respondents Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
400 8 28 48

172 144
Source: Field survey data


Legal aid clinics in India play a crucial role in addressing social issues and promoting social integration. By providing legal education, these clinics can empower vulnerable groups and provide skilled professionals; thereby maximizing employment opportunities and reducing social evil e.g., drug abuse, cyber awareness and alike issues. By focusing on practical and social issues, these clinics can prepare students to apply theoretical knowledge effectively. Teachers should ensure students are aware of social issues, participate in legal aid clinics, and supervise effectively. Collaboration between the bar council of India and state bar councils is essential for enhancing clinical legal education.


The authors acknowledge the encouragement received from Central University of Punjab, played a crucial role in the authors’ research, providing invaluable support, guidance resources, and interdisciplinary collaboration, thereby advancing knowledge and research.

Conflict Of Interest

Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


Copyright: © 2023 Raj Kumar Yadav, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.