Research - Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research ( 2023) Volume 12, Issue 1
Drug Abuse: The Role of Media in Framing Indonesian Celebrity CasesTeguh Dwi Putranto and Daniel Susilo*
Daniel Susilo, Department of Communication Science, Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Tangerang, Indonesia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 31-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JDAR-23-91212; Editor assigned: 02-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. JDAR-23-91212 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Feb-2023, QC No. JDAR-23-91212; Revised: 21-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JDAR-23-91212 (R); Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.4303/JDAR/236222
Background: The number of drug abuse cases in Indonesia in 2022 reached 851 cases. This number continues to increase from year to year, so this is a problem that has not been resolved by the government. Dependence on drugs both physically and psychologically if it lasts a long time can lead to a very large addiction. This activity does not only target one particular group in Indonesia, but has targeted all circles, including Indonesian celebrities. This research seeks to explore the framing process of online media in reporting drug abuse by Indonesian celebrities
Methods: The approach used in this study is qualitative, with Entman framing analysis method through the online news during the 2022 period on Kompas.com.
Results: Framing analysis of news articles on drug cases of 10 Indonesian celebrities in 2022 reveals how the media frames issues of drug use and possession. Analysis of news articles from the perspective of journalism and communication studies provides insight into the framing of issues and how these issues are presented to the public.
Conclusion: The negative framing of celebrities and drugs in the news media is a pervasive and persistent issue that reinforces negative stereotypes about drug use and addiction.
Drug abuse; Framing; Media; Kompas.com; Indonesian celebrity
Around 284 million individuals aged 15-64 a long time used drugs around the world in 2020, a 26% increase over the past decade. Youthful individuals utilize more drugs, with today’s rates of utilizing in numerous nations being higher than those of past eras . The intricate interplay of the several elements that affect adolescent drug usage. Thus, significant effort at all domain levels will be needed to create a child drug misuse prevention program that is effective . In Africa and Latin America, individuals beneath 35 a long time of age speak to the larger part of individuals being treated for so long utilizing clutters. Universally, the report measures that 11.2 million individuals around the world utilize infusion drugs. Around half of these are living with hepatitis C, 1.4 million are living with HIV, and 1.2 million are living with both . HIV infection is a risk factor for female teenagers from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa, who have dropped out of school, use drugs, and participate in hazardous sex behaviour. To reduce these risk factors, this important demographic needs gender-specific HIV behavioural treatments .
Meanwhile in Malaysia, the National Anti-Drugs Agency (NADA), known as the National Anti-Drug Organization (AADK), clarified that drug abuse information proceeded to significantly increase in a brief period of 6 a long time, from 541 cases in 2014 to 20,313 cases in 2020 . It has too been detailed that 14,850 of the 20,313 medicated cases enlisted in Malaysia included young people below 39 a long time of age. Crowdsourcing has grown to be one of the foremost viable ways to reach and lock in millions of individuals in no time. Driven by modern innovations and organizing capabilities, crowdsourcing has made the collective commitment of thoughts, time, abilities, and indeed community activities a implications of making issues of understanding much less demanding and more omnipresent .
Cocaine abuse and a thrombophilia design, as cofactors, have sensitized the retinal microcirculation to the pathogenesis pathway to this retinal pathology. In expansion, an exhaustive common and visual restorative history exploring medicate abuse and coagulation clutters is suggested for the ophthalmologist . Meanwhile in Indonesia, the performance of the National Narcotics Agency (BNN) on Instagram related to felonious warrants related to medicines is not displayed extensively [6,7].
The National Narcotics Agency (BNN) detailed that there were 851 cases of abusing of drugs in Indonesia in 2022. This number has expanded by 11.1% compared to the past year which measured to 766 cases. In the interim, the number of suspects in medicated cases was 1,350 individuals’ final year. That number too expanded by 14.02% compared to 2021 which totalled to 1,184 individuals  (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Number of Narcotics cases in Indonesia (2009-2022).
The social media manager for the Indonesian National Narcotics Agency’s official Instagram account only occasionally promotes and runs campaigns to stop drug and narcotic usage . Until date, the suggested restorative justice for drug offenders has been founded on the idea that jails that are overcrowded must be looked into and rules must be implemented equally to all drug offenders .
Fortifying the regulatory framework of the North Sumatra Regional Police was carried out in three ways, to be specific fortifying the regulatory framework, fortifying controls and human assets and reinforcing the inner control framework. In hone, each strategy is carried out beneath pertinent law. There’s a stratification of specialists by Indonesian National Police individuals, so that the reinforcing of Indonesian National Police’s inside framework must continuously be progressed . Indeed in spite of the fact that Regional Supervision Inspectorate has carried out observing of the drug abuse danger framework inside, it still requires outside parties, specifically the community to back the execution of the oversight work of the activities of individuals of the Indonesian National Police .
Indonesia does not permit the use of narcotics but for therapeutic purposes. The utilization of drugs for restorative purposes must be under the supervision of a specialist, in any case of the levels contained in them. In differentiate to the Netherlands which permits the utilization of Delicate Drugs as directed within the Dutch Opium Act. Within the Netherlands, the utilization of cannabis and the buy of cannabis can be drained by authorized coffee shops. The endorsement of certain types of drugs and for certain purposes exists since the Netherlands needs to supply legitimate certainty for its individuals . The Netherlands needs medicated trafficking not to be carried out by wrongdoing syndicates that will hurt its individuals. In expansion, the Netherlands moreover gives satisfactory wellbeing offices for medicated addicts. Apparently, the numbers of addicts, the number of HIV contaminations due to infusion needles, and passing from drugs have diminished. This can be what recognizes medicated arrangements in Indonesia and the Netherlands. Indonesia prioritizes criminal approaches; this could be seen from the discipline of medicated clients. While the Netherlands prioritizes Nonpenal Arrangement, this will be seen from the current incessant control. What Indonesia can take after from the medicate arrangement within the Netherlands is medicated avoidance with state supervision of sedate trafficking went with satisfactory wellbeing offices. Indonesia must decrease the discipline for medicated addicts. Criminalizing medicated addicts will not fathom the issue. In cases of recent drug abuse, addictions moreover ended up casualties .
Drug abuse happens in different ways and modern procedures. The National Narcotics Agency notes medicate drug abuse proceeds to come and go. The state must be genuine in managing with current issues. The inconvenience of extreme discipline by maintaining equity must be carried out by the state, something else drugs will annihilate life and long-standing time, particularly the longer term of the more youthful era which in turn can undermine the presence of .
Based on information from the Indonesia Drugs Report 2022, the most widely used types of drugs in Indonesia are cannabis 41.4%, methamphetamine 25.7%, nipam 11.8% and dextro 6.4% . The affect given by a few kinds of drugs is that they will feel a diminished in considering the control, learning work which affects brain execution in the future. The coordinate effect of medicated abuse on the human body incorporates disturbances of the heart, bones, blood vessels, skin, lungs, and perilous irresistible illnesses such as Help, Herpes, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, etc. For the coordinated effect on the mind, it can cause mental clutter, suicide, to commit violations, viciousness. The round about the effect of drugs is that they can be ostracized in society and away from a positive environment. In expansion, it’ll influence the user’s family since they got to bear the shame and in case it is found out by the school/university, the learning opportunity will be misplaced .
Components that impact drug abuse by children are caused by inside and outside components and efforts to overcome them are carried out through correctional endeavours (legitimate channels) and non-penal endeavours (non-legal channels) . Through Islamic psychotherapy mediation, specifically gestalt treatment, to overcome the states of mind of children who are caught in medicated cases in Class I Development Institution Special for Children (LPKA) Palembang. Islamic psychotherapy interventions carried out at LPKA Lesson I Palembang on opiate addicts were able to build great strength. The versatility had by Opiates addicts cannot be isolated from the learning handle gotten amid the detention period .
Issues related to drugs are a national issue and a worldwide issue that’s never stopped being talked about. Almost every day there’s news about security, every day there’s news almost secured drugs, it is even more concerning that drugs have indeed undermined long haul of children. The case of subverting Narcotics has ended up a dim point within the improvement of the country and state so that this case of wrecking drugs has gotten to be an awfully uncommon concern for the government and its individuals. Casualties of drugs abuse are not as it were from the lower course, but in later times, numerous from the upper course, such as authorities, best celebrities, or businessmen, are caught in drug abuse. Not as it were grown-ups but minors are too uncovered to these illegal products .
Drug abuse in Indonesia is expanding and causing complex issues. One of them, the circle that’s being talked about almost by the public could become a celebrity. Usually caused by an increment within the utilization of Narcotics among celebrities by 9% in 2019. Celebrities who are part models for the community, of course, must be able to preserve a great demeanour and title and must set a great case for society, not set a terrible case that can be imitated by the community hence causing social issues. Circulation of drug abuse that happens among celebrities begins from the most noteworthy course to the most reduced and the costs of these drug abuse change beginning from the tall and low costs . Subsequently, the open and celebrities can effortlessly get and devour these illicit drugs. The reason for drug abuse among celebrities is to diminish sentiments of push, pity, depression, increase stamina and calm feelings. In any case, such utilization can lead to compulsion. The affect that happens within the drug abuse assault among celebrities can lead to negative disgrace and misfortune of occupations for these celebrities. This inquires about points to supply instructions and data for users so that they can process the data as well as conceivable to decide which ones are great and which ones are awful and which ones are model so as not to cause social issues in society .
Inquire about related to as far as abuse by celebrities has been carried out by a few ponders. Like JN (celebrity) as one of the celebrities as inquire about the subject and his explanations within the media as the question. The comes about of this think about demonstrating that JN is conflicting. Earlier to that case, JN knew about the negative affect of drugs on his life and career. Once entrapped in the account, medicate use is fair a trial since it works. Amid police examinations, courts, and experiencing restoration, JN produces accounts about victimization whose extreme thought process is descending sentences, picture, presence, and the economy . Separated from that, the online media tvonenews.com and cnbcindonesia.com moreover give diverse reports with respect to opiate cases by AB (celebrity). Tvonenews.com centres more on detailing on the restoration of NR (celebrity) and AB (celebrity) after being named suspects, whereas cnbcindonesia.com places more emphasis on the affect the captures had on the company’s offers . This research seeks to explore the framing process of online media in reporting drug abuse by Indonesian celebrities.
This research is a qualitative descriptive study using the Robert N. Entman model framing analysis method . Framing is a strategy to shape and encourage reality, by selecting, repeating and certain aspects of pressure so that an event or issue attracts the reader’s attention . The research data was obtained from various reports that appeared on the news portals Kompas.com. The primary data of this research is related to reporting on cases of drug abuse by Indonesian celebrities. Secondary research data is related to various literatures that can be used as a reference in the process of news analysis both from the side of the media and the reality being studied.
The Entman framing model has four categorization elements namely: Defining the problem, Diagnosing causes, Making moral judgments and Recommending treatment . Define Problems is a stage in framing that is used to emphasize how events are understood by journalists when a problem arises. Cause diagnosis, a stage of analysis carried out to frame who is considered as the main actor of an event. Make moral judgment is a framing element that is used to justify the arguments in defining the problem that has been made. Treatment recommendations are used to assess what solutions are chosen to solve the problem. The solution really depends on how the incident is seen and who is seen as the cause of the problem .
The concept of framing by Robert N. Entman is used to describe the process of selecting issues and highlighting certain aspects of reality by the media. The shape of the protrusion can vary, by placing one aspect information is more prominent than others, is more conspicuous, repeats information that is considered important or associated with cultural aspects that are familiar in the minds of the public.
Results and Discussion
Researchers conducted an analysis of online news Kompas. com with details of the news as follows:
Framing analysis of news on Ardhito Pramono, Fico and Roby Satria’s drug case
Framing analysis is a theoretical approach used to analyze how media messages are constructed and presented to the audience. The news article titled “7 Artis Kasus Narkoba dari Ardhito Pramono, Fico hingga Roby Satria” (7 Celebrities Involved in Drug Case from Ardhito Pramono, Fico to Roby Satria) published on Kompas.com on March 21, 2022, can be analysed using framing analysis .
The article reports on the drug case involving seven Indonesian celebrities, including Ardhito Pramono, Fico Fachriza and Roby Satria. The article reports that they were arrested for drug use and possession by the police. The framing analysis of this news article can reveal how the media portrays these celebrities in a particular way to the public (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Ardhito Pramono was taken to the National Narcotics Agency for the special capital region of Jakarta to undergo an assessment process.
The first frame that is evident in the news article is the “crime and punishment” frame. This frame portrays the drug case as a criminal act, and the celebrities as criminals who have broken the law. The news article uses terms like “arrested,” “drug use,” and “possession” to emphasize the criminal aspect of the case. This frame suggests that the celebrities deserve punishment for their actions.
The second frame that can be identified in the news article is the “celebrity scandal” frame. This frame portrays the drug case as a scandal involving celebrities. The news article emphasizes that the celebrities involved are well-known in Indonesia, and their involvement in the drug case is surprising and shocking. This frame suggests that the public is interested in the personal lives of celebrities and that any scandal involving them is newsworthy.
The third frame identified in the news article is the “morality” frame. This frame portrays drug use as immoral and unacceptable. The news article uses terms like “drug abuse” and “addiction” to emphasize the negative consequences of drug use. This frame suggests that the public should condemn drug use and that the celebrities involved have violated moral standards.
The fourth frame identified in the news article is the “law enforcement” frame. This frame portrays the police as the heroes who are enforcing the law and catching criminals. The news article quotes a police spokesperson who emphasizes that the police are committed to eradicating drugs in Indonesia. This frame suggests that the police are doing a necessary and important job in protecting society from the harm caused by drugs.
Framing analysis of news on 10 celebrities involved in drug cases in 2022: A communication studies and journalism perspective
The news article titled “Kaleidoskop 2022: 10 Artis Terjerat Kasus Narkoba” (Kaleidoscope 2022: 10 Celebrities Involved in Drug Cases) published on Kompas.com on December 23, 2022, can be analysed using the framing model proposed by Robert Entman. This article will apply communication studies and journalism perspectives to analyse the framing of the news article on the drug cases of 10 Indonesian celebrities in 2022 (Figure 3) .
Figure 3: Drug illustration on Kompas.com December 23, 2022.
The article reports on 10 celebrities who were arrested for drug use and possession by the police in 2022. The framing analysis of this news article reveals how the media portrays these celebrities in a particular way to the public. This article will analyse the framing of the news article from the perspectives of communication studies and journalism.
From the communication studies perspective, the news article can be analysed using the concept of framing as a way of presenting information that emphasizes certain aspects and de-emphasizes others. The news article frames the drug cases of the 10 celebrities as a serious issue that needs to be addressed. The article emphasizes the fact that these celebrities have violated the law and that they should be punished accordingly. The article also frames drug use as a social problem that has negative consequences for both individuals and society as a whole.
From the journalism perspective, the news article can be analysed using the principles of news values, news angles, and news sources. The article uses news values such as timeliness, prominence, and conflict to make the story newsworthy. The article also uses different news angles, such as the legal angle, the social angle, and the entertainment angle, to provide different perspectives on the drug cases. The article also uses different news sources, such as the police, experts, and public figures, to provide diverse opinions and insights on the drug cases.
The framing model proposed by Robert Entman can be used to analyze the framing of the news article. According to Entman, framing consists of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration. The news article selects certain aspects of the drug cases, such as the names of the celebrities and their charges, and emphasizes the criminal aspect of the cases. The news article also excludes certain aspects, such as the personal and social factors that may have contributed to the drug use. The news article elaborates on the legal consequences of the drug cases and the opinions of the police and public figures.
Celebrity and drug news framing
The framing of celebrities and drugs in the news media has always been negative, and this negative framing has a significant impact on how the public perceives both celebrities and drug use. The news media has a tendency to sensationalize drug use among celebrities, portraying it as a deviant behaviour that should be condemned. This negative framing reinforces the social stigma associated with drug use, and often perpetuates misconceptions about drug users and addiction.
One of the reasons for the negative framing of celebrities and drugs is the idea of the “moral panic” that arises from the media’s coverage of drug use among high-profile individuals. The media often portrays drug use as a threat to society and highlights the negative consequences of drug use, such as addiction, overdose, and criminal behaviour. This framing reinforces the idea that drug use is a dangerous and destructive behaviour that should be condemned, and that celebrities who engage in drug use are morally flawed and irresponsible.
Furthermore, the negative framing of celebrities and drugs is also related to the idea of celebrity culture, where the public often holds celebrities to a higher moral standard than ordinary people. This means that when celebrities are involved in drug use, the media often portrays them as hypocrites who have failed to live up to the expectations of their fans and the public. This framing reinforces the idea that celebrities are role models and that they should set a good example for their fans, which makes their drug use all the more shocking and condemnable.
The negative framing of celebrities and drugs in the news media can have significant consequences for both the celebrities involved and for the public at large. Celebrities who are portrayed in a negative light in the media often experience significant damage to their reputation, which can impact their careers and their personal lives. Moreover, the negative framing of drug use can perpetuate misconceptions about drug users and addiction, and can make it more difficult for individuals who struggle with drug addiction to seek help and support.
In conclusion, framing analysis of the news article on the drug case involving Ardhito Pramono, Fico Fachriza, and Roby Satria reveals the different frames used by the media to construct the story. The news article uses frames such as “crime and punishment,” “celebrity scandal,” “morality,” and “law enforcement” to portray the celebrities and their actions in a particular way to the public. The framing of the news article influences how the audience perceives the drug case and the celebrities involved.
The framing analysis of the news article on the drug cases of 10 Indonesian celebrities in 2022 reveals how the media frames the issue of drug use and possession. The article frames drug use as a social problem that needs to be addressed and emphasizes the criminal aspect of the cases. The article also uses different news angles and sources to provide diverse perspectives on the issue. The analysis of the news article from the perspectives of communication studies and journalism provides insights into the framing of the issue and how it is presented to the public.
The negative framing of celebrities and drugs in the news media is a pervasive and persistent issue that reinforces negative stereotypes about drug use and addiction. The media’s portrayal of drug use among celebrities can have significant consequences for both the individuals involved and for the public at large, perpetuating misconceptions and reinforcing stigma. It is important for the media to consider the impact of their framing on the public perception of drug use and addiction, and to strive for more balanced and nuanced coverage of these complex issues.
This research was supported by Universitas Multimedia Nusantara.
Conflict of Interest
Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
The above study doesn’t refer to any particular celebrity or a particular person as it is a comprehensive study of the Indonesian country.
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Copyright: © 2023 Teguh Dwi Putranto, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.