Research Article - Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research ( 2022) Volume 11, Issue 1

Communicating Rehabilitation Policies on Drug Abusers in Indonesia

Zulaikha Zulaikha*, Choirul Saleh, Siti Rohmah and Sumartono Sumartono
Department of Administration, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author:
Zulaikha Zulaikha, Department of Administration, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia,

Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. jdar-22-51440;;Accepted Date: Jan 24, 2022; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. jdar-22-51440 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2022, QC No. jdar-22-51440; Revised: 24-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. jdar-22-51440 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.4303/jdar/236160


Indonesia is one of the countries that see a high level of drug prevalence every year. Not only that, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) stated that Indonesia was included in the golden triangle of drug trafficking, especially methamphetamine along with Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia. The number of drug abusers in Indonesia with insufficient prison capacity or overcrowding causes several impacts, one of which is fires. This eventually led to a rehabilitation policy for drug abusers in Indonesia, so that the consequences for abusers are not punishment, but rather rehabilitation efforts. The purpose of this study is to find out how the National Narcotics Agency as an institution that handles drug problems in Indonesia communicates rehabilitation policies for drug abusers in Indonesia. The method used in this study is Krippendorff content analysis with a quantitative approach to Instagram @infobnn_ri posts during the period from September 1 to December 31, 2021. The results of this study indicate that the efforts of the National Narcotics Agency in communicating the rehabilitation policy are using informative methods.


Drugs (narcotics, psychotropic chemicals, and other addictive substances) can jeopardize human life and, if misused, even result in death. Drugs have a wide range of negative consequences, including health, psychological, economic, socio-cultural, defence and security, and so on. Drug addicts are helped in a variety of methods to get back to normal and rehabilitate. As a result, users/dealers are subjected to harsh penalties under national criminal law [1]. Narcotics and other addictive substances pose an ongoing challenge. In the worldwide world, circulation or violation is considered one of the most serious crimes, although there is no disruption in Indonesia [2]. Narcotics are chemicals or substances that can calm nerves, induce unconsciousness or anesthesia, relieve pain and agony, generate drowsiness or stimulation, cause stupor, and promote addiction or addiction, according to the Minister of Health [3]. Pharmaceuticals are vital for treatment and health services, but their misuse or non-compliance with regular treatments, especially when combined with illicit drug trafficking, has serious consequences for individuals and society, especially the youth. This is particularly troubling because the facts show that drug charges account for half of all convicts in prison. Drug related tales abound in the criminal news in both print and electronic media [1]. Because narcotics have the ability to affect an entire generation of people, narcotics crime is a unique crime that all governments throughout the world are concerned about. The COVID-19 pandemic is currently spreading the globe, wreaking havoc on all aspects of human life and murdering millions of people, so that drugs become an emergency condition in Indonesia [4].

Indonesia is in a state of drug emergency, which means it is a country with a high level of susceptibility to drug misuse and illicit trafficking that requires immediate and significant attention. The problem of drug usage and illicit trafficking is a humanitarian issue that has a wide range of consequences. This serious emergency situation is likewise worsening over time. In fact, nearly no part of the country is free of drug usage and illegal trafficking [5]. Drug usage in Indonesia is on the rise year after year, wreaking havoc on individuals and society, particularly the younger generation. Can put the nation’s life and cultural values at jeopardy, thus jeopardizing national security. In Indonesia, drug usage is currently the most talked about topic [6]. Drug addiction remains a chronic problem in Indonesia, with the recent discovery of methamphetamine and the arrest of numerous foreign drug dealers demonstrating that the country is in a state of drug emergency [7].

Drug abuse has reached alarmingly high levels in Indonesia. Narcotics have no age restrictions, and they are used and sold by parents, children, teenagers, and even children. Illegal circulation is one of the most common types of circulation. Narcotics are a serious problem in Indonesia; they are not only circulating in the country’s big cities, but they have also expanded to rural areas. Due to its ideal geographic location, Indonesia has transformed from a transit country for narcotics criminal activity to a drug producing country. In an era of globalization dominated by technological breakthroughs, this may be seen in the recent revelation of many narcotics producing facilities in Indonesia. Due to advancements in communication, trade, and the tourism industry’s rapid rise, Indonesia has become a potential medication producer [8]. The eradication of drugs in Indonesia via school visits during the 2019 timeframe was not discovered [9]. On the official Instagram account of the Indonesian National Narcotics Agency, the social media officer has limited actions on promoting and campaigning on drug and narcotics usage prevention [10]. The drug problem in Indonesia is still a pressing and complicated issue. This issue has become common in the recent decade. It is demonstrated by the enormous increase in the number of drug abusers or addicts, as well as the increasing exposure of drug criminal cases, which are becoming more diverse in pattern as the syndicate network grows in size, One of them is Indonesia, where there are still many narcotics cases [11].

In the case of Indonesia, the country’s potential as a large market share, producer, and transit route for narcotics forces us to take a more complex and broad view of the problem by recognizing that there are facts of illicit drug production, the existence of illicit drug trafficking (illegal trafficking), and the presence of narcotics in Indonesia (drug abuse). The problem of drugs is dangerous for the nation and the state, as well as for individual users, their families, and society. As a result, the Indonesian government is committed to preventing drugs and drug trafficking in a comprehensive and multidimensional manner, with active community participation [2]. The community is both the subject and the object of the drug problem, whereas law enforcement officers are primarily facilitators of the police, and the government is involved in assisting community drug control operations. It is extremely meaningful to invite others to participate in the Prevention Program for the Eradication of Narcotics Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, no matter how modest the role played by the community.

Prevention, community empowerment, rehabilitation, and eradication programs are all used to address the problem of drug usage and illicit trafficking. People who are still clean from drug misuse are targeted for prevention and community empowerment activities. Meanwhile, a recovery treatment program is available for anyone who has become a drug abuser or addict. Rehabilitation is a critical stage in rehabilitating addicts so that they can return to society as productive and helpful members of society [5]. There is a relationship between social support and motivation to recover in drug users [12]. Continuous evaluation is needed to ensure that the rehabilitation policy is implemented properly and has an impact that can reduce the number of drug abusers [13]. The greatest option for drug users’ healing efforts is a rehabilitation program, which requires a location that can accommodate all of their activities [14]. The government’s commitment to eliminating narcotics includes the designation of narcotics as an extraordinary crime. Furthermore, in Law (UU) No. 35 of 2009, the state establishes narcotics regulations. Problems with narcotics are said to have the potential to harm not only the nation’s future but also people’s health. According to the requirements of Law 35 of 2009, narcotics users can be classified as addicts, which are people who use or misuse narcotics and are in a state of narcotic dependence, both physically and psychologically, and have the right to medical and social rehabilitation. The right to recover drug users’ health from addiction is in line with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which classify addiction (dependency) as a chronic relapsing disease that can be treated. The Indonesian Ombudsman also emphasized the high standard of prisoner rehabilitation in drug misuse instances. According to Indonesian Ombudsman, arresting drug addicts will only result in overcrowding in jails if rehabilitation is not prioritized [2].

According to study findings from the Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR), the number of detainees and restrictions in Indonesia reached 270,721 as of March 30, 2020, with a total capacity of 131,931 individuals. Overcrowding is a cruel situation. This is a complicated topic that needs to be addressed as a group. In the short term, aggressive policies are required to reduce overpopulation [15]. The number of occupants exceeding capacity (overcrowding) also causes several impacts, one of which is fire. The most common causes of fires occurring in prisons or detention centres are insufficient housing conditions, challenges in controlling security and delays, and delays in implementing safety and security measures [16]. so that this condition becomes one of the considerations in providing rehabilitation policies for addicts and drug abusers. The researcher presents an overview of the differences between the latest research and previous research by bringing up several previous studies.

In the first previous study, it was stated that narcotics have become widely available in all aspects of life, especially among children. Drug misuse affects a large number of children. Given the difficulties of victims or drug users escaping drug dependence on their own, the significance of rehabilitation in addiction recovery for drug addicts is critical. On the one hand, drug users and addicts are criminals, but on the other side, they are victims (crime without victims). Drug addict rehabilitation is a type of social protection that involves reintegrating drug abusers into society so that they no longer abuse drugs. Medical and social therapy can be provided to children who have been victims of drug misuse [17]. In the second previous study, it was stated that the counsellor’s position in the recovery process was extremely beneficial to the residents’ recuperation. Counsellor at Bhayangkara Indonesia Institute for Drug Abuse and Prevention Rehabilitation Medan Helvetia did an excellent job in their jobs. Researchers made ideas to the counsellors based on their research that they would improve their services, performance, and knowledge in recovering drug addicts and execute them wholeheartedly. Residents’ parents must also participate and be available to help their children’s recuperation [18]. In the third previous study, it was stated that those who can benefit from rehabilitation are primarily those who have been harmed by opioids. Meanwhile, if it is established that narcotics addicts and traffickers are also victims of narcotics misuse, rehabilitation procedures can be implemented. The study’s findings suggest that there are still some flaws in the exercise of this authority at the level of investigation and prosecution for the executor of the authority to issue rehabilitation measures. As a result, the Panel of Judges through the legal process is the most appropriate executor of the authority to provide rehabilitation measures for narcotics addicts and victims of narcotics abuse. As a result, revisions to drugs legislation are required, and the executor of the authority to provide rehabilitation measures for narcotics addicts and victims of narcotics misuse must be returned to the Panel of Judges. This must be done so that the implementation of rehabilitation measures for narcotics addicts and victims of narcotics misuse can be done with clarity [19]. In the fourth previous study, it was stated that the problems faced by the National Narcotics Agency of Bali Province in rehabilitating narcotics abuse victims, as well as the methods for implementing rehabilitation of narcotics abuse victims at the National Narcotics Agency of Bali Province. Because there are still ambiguous norms, based on the opinions of undergraduate law and law, this study employs the normative technique [20].

Several previous studies that have been raised regarding rehabilitation efforts for drug abusers, they discuss more about (1) determine the authority in providing rehabilitation measures for narcotics addicts and victims of narcotics abuse, (2) the role of counsellors in the recovery process for victims of narcotics abuse, (3) determine the procedures for executing narcotics abuse victim rehabilitation and the challenges the Bali Province National Narcotics Agency has in rehabilitating abuse narcotics victims, and (4) the role of rehabilitation for victims of narcotics abuse in the National Narcotics Agency of Bali. Based on the background that has been described and several previous studies that have been raised that the aim of this research is to find out how the National Narcotics Agency as an institution that handles drug problems in Indonesia communicates rehabilitation policies for drug abusers in Indonesia.


This study employed the content analysis method to describe the elements and characteristics of the post content. Content analysis is a systematic approach for evaluating message content and delivery, as well as an analytical tool for monitoring and analysing the communication activities of selected communicators [21,22]. The content analysis method was chosen because the researcher tried quantitatively to see the content of Instagram posts, then the researchers tried to interpret the post content, read the symbols, and interpret the symbolic interaction content of Instagram posts.

Almost any type of information can now be discovered readily on social media sites, one of which is Instagram [23]. Instagram users can also utilize hashtags and geotags in their posts to openly share their vacation experiences. By searching using hashtags and geotags, travelers can aid with initial assumptions [24]. Instagram is a photo and video sharing social media platform used to convey one’s online self-presentation [25,26]. Instagram is a video and image focused social networking site that allows users to add captions, hashtags, and comments to their posts. This application is compatible with both PCs and mobile devices, however it is primarily designed for mobile devices [27,28].

People’s lives have grown inextricably linked to social media. On social networking sites, or SNS, which are a sort of social media, users can create their own network. Not only that, but users can choose their friends, the type of content they want to see, the type of connection they want to have, and whether or not they want certain things to be seen just by particular people via social media [29]. This age is identical to the previous one; the only difference is that the web now has to connect all actual and virtual devices in real time. The following web (5.0) is a dynamic web that allows users and the web to interact in an emotional and intelligent way. Also known as the Web of Thoughts, this is a place where human nature meets artificial intelligence [30,31].

The researcher used two coders to ensure objectivity in coding and data collecting. Two encoders were employed, and reliability tests were done to determine the correctness of the data and to check the authenticity of the data collected. In the reliability test, two encoders were utilized to assess the validity of the obtained data and determine its correctness.

The researcher uses content analysis to find out how the National Narcotics Agency as an institution that handles drug problems in Indonesia communicates rehabilitation policies for drug abusers in Indonesia. The steps taken by the researcher in this content analysis method are as follows: first, the researcher looks at Instagram posts during the period from September 1 to December 31, 2021. Second, the researcher chooses Instagram to see posts that highlight communicating rehabilitation policies for drug abusers in Indonesia via Instagram. Third, after the posts are collected, the encoder will sort the posts. Fourth, the collected data is then processed and analysed.

This study uses the Holsti formula to calculate data from two coders [22,32]. Where PAo is the percentage agreement between the two coders, A is the number of decisions made by the two coders, N1 and N2 are the number of decisions taken by the coders.


Communicating the rehabilitation policy by the National Narcotics Agency in this study focuses on the method of implementation. So that in communicating the rehabilitation policy, researchers use indicators of implementation methods which include:

1. Redundancy method, this is a technique for persuading an audience by repeating a message. A message that is repeated attracts attention and can help the listener remember the message. The communicator may be given the opportunity to fix his prior delivery’s errors.

2. Canalizing method, in this strategy, the communicator gets to know the audience before starting to express concepts based on the audience’s personality, attitudes, and motives. The method of communication is represented in the shape of the content according to the form of the content.

3. Informative method, it is known as informative message form in the area of publicity and mass communication, which is a type of message content that tries to influence audiences by delivering information. Above factual facts and data, as well as correct judgments, illumination implies portraying something as it is, as it actually is.

4. Educational method, manifested in the form of communications offering truthful and verifiable ideas, facts, and experiences. The content of the message is delivered in an ordered and planned manner with the goal of changing the audience’s behaviour.

5. Coercive method, specifically, influencing the audience by pushing them to accept ideas or ideas; in this scenario, the audience is forced to embrace ideas or ideas. As a result, the message sent by this communication is not merely an opinion, but also a threat.

6. Persuasive method, even if it can be influenced unintentionally, there is a way to influence the communicant by not thinking too seriously.

Results and Discussion

Researchers collected 7 Instagram posts from @infobnn_ri and assessed the reliability of the data using the Holsti method. Indicators of implementation methods include (1) Redundancy method, (2) Canalizing method, (3) Informative method, (4) Educational method, (5) Coercive method, (6) Persuasive method.

Table 1 describes the findings of the coding process for coder 1 and coder 2 on 7 posts that have been separated by date and their respective indications.

Table 1: Analysis of Posts by Two Coders for the period September 1 to December 31, 2021.

Month Coder 1 Coder 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
September - - 3 - - - - - 2 - - 1
October - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1
November - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - -
December - - 2 - - - - - 2 - - -
Total - - 7 - - - - - 5 - - 2
Note: *(1) Redundancy method, (2) Canalizing method, (3) Informative method, (4) Educational method, (5) Coercive method, (6) Persuasive method.

In addition, Table 2 below provides a summary of these indicators.

Table 2: Coder Output.

  Variable Coding output
Coder 1 Coder 2 Agreement between two coders
Redundancy method - - -
Canalizing method - - -
Informative method 7 5 5
Educational method - - -
Coercive method - - -
Persuasive method - 2 -
Total 7 7 5




=0,71 (71%)

Data is said to be reliable if it can have a tolerance value of at least 70% or more than 0.7% [33]. The reliability element is 0.71 or 71% based on the calculation results of the data obtained using the Coder Holsti reliability formula. Therefore, the data obtained is declared reliable because it exceeds the minimum limit. Based on the results of the coding that has been carried out on implementation methods indicators which include (1) Redundancy method, (2) Canalizing method, (3) Informative method, (4) Educational method, (5) Coercive method, (6) Persuasive method. The informative methods indicator dominates in the @ infobnn_ri Instagram post.

According to a post @infobnn_ri on September 23, 2021, the Rehabilitation Officer Capabilities Assistance activity was carried out by the Deputy for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia in order to give the finest service in the field of rehabilitation (CBT) (Figure 1) [34]. The goal of this assistance activity is to improve awareness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and relapse prevention strategies and resources. 32 rehabilitation institutes from the community as well as government organizations from 14 provinces participated in this support activity, which aimed to provide recovery services for addicts, abusers, and victims of narcotics, psychotropics, and other addictive substances.


Figure 1: Instagram post @infobnn_ri September 23, 2021.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a type of talk therapy that encourages and supports people in their efforts to reduce or stop drug use. It is also a type of psychotherapy that aims to change a person’s behavior in order to recover and avoid relapse. An individual or client is urged to identify the triggering elements, inhibiting factors, and comprehend the individual’s response to these variables as well as take additional action or management of these factors so that they can sustain their recovery through this “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.” This aid is critical because it is a counseling strategy that is compatible with the majority of clinical program skills. Furthermore, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has been widely examined and experimentally confirmed in clinical trials. Another significant feature of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is that it is structured; goal oriented, and focused on the issues that clients experience while in treatment and trying to manage their drug use.

According to a post @infobnn_ri on November 12, 2021, the National Narcotics Agency of North Sulawesi Province’s Creative Breakthrough Program for Rehabilitation Services, the Bersinar Village Declaration and Awarding of Prevention, Eradication of Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking Supporters, and the North Sulawesi Police Headquarters’ Drugs Free Exhibition Day The Head of National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia expressed his gratitude and appreciation to the Regional Leadership Coordination Forum of North Sulawesi Province, particularly the Governor of North Sulawesi, as well as local government officials and Village Heads, for their continued support of National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia’s efforts to protect the community from the dangers of drug abuse and illicit trafficking in the North Sulawesi region (Figure 3) [36].


Figure 3: Instagram post @infobnn_ri November 12, 2021.

According to a post @infobnn_ri on September 26, 2021, the Head of the Republic of Indonesia’s National Narcotics Agency expressed his pride in the employees’ dedication in carrying out their duties to provide the best for the community and the state in the war against drugs, noting that the war against drugs is not only carried out using weapons in eradicating trafficking, but also in recovering addicts and abusers from drugs (Figure 2) [35]. Drug addiction is a problem. Furthermore, the Rehabilitation Workshop’s facilities and infrastructure, which is well-known as a child friendly rehabilitation service, saw firsthand craft training activities for residents, such as manufacturing tissue boxes and doormats. Residents are expected to gain skills as a result of this training, allowing them to not only rehabilitate but also to become economically empowered.


Figure 2: Instagram post @infobnn_ri September 26, 2021.

The Governor of North Sulawesi conveyed his gratitude and admiration to the Indonesian National Narcotics Agency and the National Narcotics Agency of North Sulawesi Province, who have fought tirelessly to combat drug trafficking in Minahasa. The Governor, in particular, presented an award to the Head of the National Narcotics Agency of North Sulawesi Province, who has worked tirelessly to strengthen drug control in North Sulawesi Province. Meanwhile, the Head of the National Narcotics Agency of North Sulawesi Province in North Sulawesi, begs for complete support and prays for the breakthrough program’s success so that those who have been exposed to narcotics can be rehabilitated.

According to a post @infobnn_ri on December 11, 2021, the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia held a community based intervention workshop, which is the flagship program of the Deputy for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, aimed at addicts or victims of narcotics abuse, and the results obtained are similar (Figure 4) [37]. Addicts and victims of narcotics misuse have found it to be useful in their recovery. The results of this research consultant’s study on the implementation of community based interventions were in fact directly proportional to the results of the Directorate of Strengthening Community Component Rehabilitation Institutions, Deputy for Rehabilitation of the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia’s evaluation and field findings of community based intervention programs.


Figure 4: Instagram post @infobnn_ri December 11, 2021.

According to the findings of the study, community based interventions, which were originally aimed at providing rehabilitation to addicts or victims of narcotics abuse with a low risk level, were found to be accessible to those with a moderate risk level as well, and had a positive impact on the addict’s or victim’s survival. Based on a six month evaluation, it was determined that the adoption of community based treatments improved the quality of life of addicts or victims of narcotics misuse who participated in the program (clients). When compared to clients who did not receive community based intervention rehabilitation services, clients’ perceptions of physical health, psychological well-being, and social relationships improved.

According to a post @infobnn_ri published on November 17, 2021, the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia will organize a three day hybrid Evaluation Work Meeting for the Rehabilitation Sector in 2021, with the topic “Optimizing Quality Rehabilitation Services towards a Shining Indonesia” (Figure 5) [38]. The goal of the activity was to analyze the Rehabilitation Sector’s implementation of programs and activities in 2021, and to synchronize the Rehabilitation Sector’s implementation of programs and activities at the central and regional levels in 2022, and to synergize programs and activities in the Rehabilitation Sector with other work programs in the work unit in the scope of work, according to the information provided. The National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as allied agencies, are developing high quality rehabilitation programs for drug addicts as an alternative to punishment in order to help Indonesia Shine. The goal of this activity is to synchronize the implementation of rehabilitation programs and activities at the national and regional levels in 2022 in order to provide high quality rehabilitation services, as well as to create synergies between rehabilitation programs and activities and other work programs in work units within the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia and other agencies. Related and the accomplishment of the establishment of high quality rehabilitation services in the direction of Shining Indonesia in the implementation of drugs abusers’ alternative punishments.


Figure 5: Instagram post @infobnn_ri November 17, 2021.


The data analysis that has been carried out has resulted in the conclusion that the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia communicates drug abuse rehabilitation policies in Indonesia with informative methods. Through Instagram posts @infobnn_ri, informative methods can be seen with the aim of influencing the community by utilizing message content including the National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia making several efforts as a concern for rehabilitation policies for drug abusers. Such as by providing cognitive therapy assistance in rehabilitation institutions, encouraging “War on Drugs” in rehabilitation locations, creating creative breakthroughs for rehabilitation services, holding community based intervention workshops and evaluation work meetings in the field of rehabilitation.

Conflict of Interests



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