The Effect of Drugs of Abuse and Alcohol Can Lead to Ocular Disorders: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

Author(s): Rodiah Rahmawaty Lubis*, Anna Mira Lubis, Hamzah Sulaiman Lubis, Yuliani Mardiati Lubis


Background & Aim: The effect of those drug and alcohol on the ocular can range from mild to severe that can cause visual loss or even blindness. The effects of drug and alcohol abuse remain unclear and were studied in this meta-analysis.

Methods: Prospective studies that randomised heavier alcohol consumption to either were included. The primary outcome was odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence level risk of early AMD. Methodological quantitative was assessed using STATA software.

Results: Patients with more than three drinks per day were classified in the highest category in all studies. The six studies reported an increased risk of early AMD in relation to heavy alcohol consumption, but only in one study found it to be statistically significant. There was a borderline heterogeneity between studies (p 0.698; <50%); therefore the results are presented in the form of a fixed effect.

Conclusion: Heavy alcohol consumption more than three times the standard drink per day is associated with an increased risk of early Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although this relationship appears to be independent and is thought

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