The Effect of Clitorea Ternatea Flower Extract Towards Interleukin 1-Beta, Nitric Oxide And Aorta Intima-Media Thickness In The Early Stage Of Atherosclerosis: In Vivo Study with Atherosclerosis Rats Model
Cardiovascular disease is caused by many things, especially atherosclerotic plaque. The process involves cytokines as a complex inflammatory response in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine. It is also affected by oxidative stress. Clitorea ternatea was a plant in Indonesia that could be used as anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this study was to determine potential ability of Clitorea ternatea flower extract to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β) expression, to increase antioxidant activity (Nitric Oxide), and to decrease tunica intima-media thickness in aortic histopathology in vivo related with early stage of atherosclerosis. This study was an experimental study and only posttest with control group design, using male white Rattus norvegicus Wistarstrain which divided into 5 groups, namely 2 control groups (dyslipidemic rats and normal rats) and 3 treatment groups (dyslipidemic rats with Clitorea ternatea flower extract 500 mg/kg/day p.o., Dyslipidemic rats with atorvastatin 40 mg/day p.o, Dyslipidemic rats with Clitorea ternatea flower extract 500 mg/kg/day p.o. and atorvastatin 40 mg/day p.o.). Parameters observed were IL-1β, nitric oxide, and aortic intima-media thickness. Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA with 95% of confidence interval. The administration of 500 mg/kg flower extract significantly decreased IL-1β, increased nitric oxide, and decreased aortic intima-media tunica thickness. Conclusions: Clitorea ternatea flower extract could reduce IL-1β levels, increase nitric oxide and decrease tunica intima media thickness in aortic histopathology (p<0.05), and Clitorea ternatea flower extract had similar potential with atorvastatin as control agent (p>0.05).