Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke and its Risk Assessments
Cigarette smoking is the most abused tobacco product globally. Hence, level of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the mainstream smoke of cigarettes was determined in this study. Risk assessment of inhaling PCBs in the cigarette smoke was carried out using some health indexes. Mainstream smokes of popular brands of cigarette were extracted using smoke extractor. PCBs quantification was carried out using GC-MS operated in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The results showed the dioxin like PCBs ranges of: 1.2-3.37 ng, 1.22-3.61 ng, 0.13-4.21 ng, and 0.29-3.85 ng/ cigarette for PCB 77, PCB 105, PCB 114 and PCB 118, respectively. The Toxicity equivalent (TEQs) of the cigarettes ranged 8.7×10(-6)-3.21×10(-4) ng WHO-TEQ. The calculated daily inhalation exposure values ranged, 0.0288-0.0655 ng TEQ kg-1 day-1. The calculated Incremental Life Cancer Risk (ILCR) values are within the limit stipulated by WHO, while the values of Hazard Quotients (HQ) were all above 1. The study revealed high risk of non-carcinogenic illness is associated with inhaling PCBs in the mainstream smoke of cigarette.