Opinion - Journal of Evolutionary Medicine ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 12

Evolving Conceptions of the Metabolic Syndrome

Junfeng Dou*
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author:
Junfeng Dou, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, Email: leilynurul@unsri.ac.id

Received: 30-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-23-87977; Editor assigned: 02-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JEM-23-87977 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Dec-2022, QC No. JEM-23-87977; Revised: 21-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-23-87977 (R); Published: 28-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4303/JEM/236098


Due to the difficulties in creating a set of uniform criteria for it, the definition of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has changed throughout time. Almost often, a pro-inflammatory condition associated with altered glucose metabolism, which may increase cardiovascular risk, underlies the diseases associated with MetS. Indeed, type 2 diabetes and Cardiovascular Illnesses (CVDs) are closely associated MetS comorbidities (T2D). It has been noted that intricate interactions between human microbiota, genetic factors, and food influence the propensity to develop metabolic syndrome. This review summarises the literature from the past ten years on three key aspects of MetS: (i) the definition and classification of the syndrome, its pathophysiology, and treatment strategies; (ii) the prediction and diagnosis of the biomarkers discovered using cutting-edge methodologies (NMR, LC/GC-MS, and LC, LC-MS); and (iii) the function of foods and food components in the prevention and/or treatment of MetS, illuminating a potential role of the most frequent melanoma that does not affect the skin is Uveal Melanoma (UM), which is the most frequent intraocular malignant tumour. Although the prevalence of UM is low, over 50% of patients still have deadly metastasis, typically to the liver, in spite of receiving medical care. Despite the fact that the etiopathogenesis of UM is still being researched, a number of known mutations and chromosomal abnormalities are linked to the disease’s pathophysiology and have significant prognostic significance. The most frequently mutated genes are BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ, and SF3B1. Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 are mutually exclusive, whereas mutations in BAP1 and SF3B1 and BAP1 and EIF1AX are practically mutually exclusive.


The most common chromosomal aberration is monosomy of chromosome 3, which is followed by gain of chromosome 8q, loss of all or part of chromosomes 1 and 6, and monosomy of chromosome 3. Additionally, research has been done on the epigenetic processes that Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNA), such as microRNAs, control. In in vitro and in vivo models of cancer both exhibit dysregulated expressions of ncRNAs, according to several articles examining the function of ncRNAs in UM. Current research on genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and ncRNA dysregulation will be included in this review to establish UM biology.

Along with the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is also rising quickly globally. In Spain, the prevalence of Mets in elderly men and women is around 40% and 32%, respectively. The most recent data suggest that over a quarter of the adult population globally has MetS, despite prevalence estimates varying depending on the criteria used to define MetS: WHO 1999, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) 2005, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2006. The rising prevalence of MetS has been linked to a number of variables, including genetics, a sedentary lifestyle, and a poor diet. Modern living’s eating and sleeping habits are out of sync with our bodies’ normal biological daily cycles and have been linked to a number of harmful health outcomes, including cancer, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. The area of chronobiology has recently provided some insight on the potential roles that individual chronotype, timing of meals, and energy distribution throughout the day may play as MetS factors. Breakfast is frequently regarded as the most significant meal of the day, and several studies have examined the detrimental effects of skipping breakfast on health outcomes.

In addition, a recent Australian cross-sectional study including 9341 individuals revealed that getting more of your daily energy from breakfast may help you eat better and consume less overall.

In addition to breakfast portion size, new research has focused on breakfast quality and macronutrient composition in connection to cardiometabolic health, glycemic management, and specific metabolic biomarkers. For instance, a healthy cardiometabolic profile in adults was linked to high carbohydrate consumption and reduced fat intake during breakfast. The available study has mostly examined eating at lunch, dinner, and night but has not examined eating at breakfast in terms of meal time and its effect on metabolism and weight control.


The most often suggested range for breakfast’s contribution to daily calorie consumption is between 15% and 25%, according to several researches addressing the issue. As putative mediators of the impact of breakfast on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and metabolic profile, a few pathways have been put forth. Included in these are lifestyle traits like increasing Physical Activity (PA), making better food selections, boosting the fullness felt after eating in the morning, and meal timing-dependent energy expenditure. Because of this, the connection between breakfast size and MetS has received very little research, despite the growing interest in the impact of energy allocation throughout meals on metabolic profile and obesity. Therefore, our goal was to cross-sectionally evaluate the relationship between breakfast portion size and the prevalence of MetS in Spanish individuals.

Copyright: © 2022 Junfeng Dou. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.