Commentary Article - Journal of Evolutionary Medicine ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 6

Evolutionary History of Animals Using Genomics, Phonemics, Fossil Record and Study of Evolution

Thomas Trnski*
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Pas, USA
*Corresponding Author:
Thomas Trnski, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Pas, USA, Email:

Received: 01-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. jem-22- 69277 ;;Accepted Date: Jun 22, 2022; Editor assigned: 03-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. jem-22- 69277 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Jun-2022, QC No. jem-22- 69277 ; Revised: 22-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. jem-22- 69277 (R); Published: 29-Jun-2022, DOI: 10.4303/jem/236066


Animal life is incredibly diverse, both now and over the last half billion years. A major goal of evolutionary biology is to describe and understand the evolution of this diversity of body plans, from vertebrates like humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups like sponges, insects, mollusks, and worms. This book takes a modern, integrated approach to describe how current molecular genetic techniques and disciplines as diverse as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in animal evolution research. The last decade has seen a surge in interest in evolutionary biology, fueled by a wealth of molecular biology data.


Modern phylogenies that incorporate evidence from molecules, embryological data, and morphology of living and fossil taxa provide broad agreement on the major branching patterns of the tree of life; additionally, the links between phenotype and genotype are becoming clearer. This has resulted in a reliable tree of relationships that is widely accepted, as well as a slew of new and exciting questions that necessitate a rethinking of the origins and spread of animal life. The emphasis of this volume is on major animal groups, the morphological innovations that define them, and the mechanisms of embryology change that have resulted in their evolution. Current research themes and future prospects are highlighted, including phylogeny reconstruction, comparative developmental biology, the value of various data sources and the significance of fossils, homology assessment, character evolution, phylogeny of major animal groups, and genome evolution. These topics are combined in light of a ‘new animal phylogeny,’ providing new insights into the patterns and processes of animal evolution.

Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of prehistoric animals, plants, and other organisms. A series of spectacular discoveries, including embryos, from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian have enlivened the fossil record of the earliest animals in recent years, but many issues, including dating and interpretation, remain contentious. Aspects of taphonomy of the earliest fossils, in particular, require careful consideration before making conclusions about their affinities. Nonetheless, a compelling case can now be made for extending the fossil record of at least basal animals (sponges and possibly cnidarians) to a time much earlier than the Cambrian. The Cambrian explosion still appears to represent the arrival of the bilaterians, and many new fossils have added significant data on the origin of the three major bilaterian clades in recent years. Why animals appear so late in the fossil record is still unknown, but the recent trend to accept rising oxygen levels as the proximate cause is unproven and may even involve some circularity.

The mitochondrial genomes were the first to be compared for phylogenetic inference, providing the first sets of genome- level characters for phylogenetic reconstruction.


Comparisons of the relative arrangements of genes have been the most powerful of these characteristics, convincingly resolving numerous branching points, including some that had previously remained recalcitrant even to very large molecular sequence comparisons. The world is now facing a flood of complete nuclear genome sequences. Aside from the massive amount of DNA sequence that is becoming available for comparison, there is also the possibility of developing many more genome-level characters, such as the relative positions of introns, the domain structures of proteins, gene family membership, the presence of specific biochemical pathways, aspects of DNA replication or transcription, and many others. These characteristics can be particularly convincing due to their low likelihood of reverting to a primitive state or occurring independently in separate lineages, reducing the occurrence of homoplasy. Comparisons of organelle genomes paved the way for using such features for phylogenetic reconstructions, and it is almost certain that as more genomic sequence becomes available, further use of genome-level characters will play an important role in outlining the relationships between major animal groups. Human evolution is undeniably ongoing and will continue to be so. Humans differ in their reproductive success, which leads directly to evolution. Humans still face survival challenges and exhibit variation in heritable traits, which are all characteristics of evolution.



Conflict of Interest


Copyright: © 2022 Thomas T. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited