Perspective - Journal of Evolutionary Medicine ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 12

Enhancing the Properties of Gene Expression and Biomechanics

Juliet Nissi*
Department of Genetic Engineering, Yale School of Medicine, USA
*Corresponding Author:
Juliet Nissi, Department of Genetic Engineering, Yale School of Medicine, USA, Email:

Received: 30-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-23-87356; Editor assigned: 02-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JEM-23-87356(PQ); Reviewed: 16-Dec-2022, QC No. JEM-23-87356; Revised: 21-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-23-87356 (R); Published: 28-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4303/JEM/236099


Gene expression patterns and the biomechanical characteristics of connective tissues can be correlated to gain knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing tissue development and repair. Although cadaveric specimens like human knees are frequently regarded as ideal for biomechanical investigations, the inevitable, nuclease-mediated destruction of RNA may restrict their value for gene expression tests. Here, we examined the viability of obtaining accurate gene expression profiles from human Anterior Cruciate Ligaments’ degraded RNA (ACLs). The heavily degraded RNA obtained from cadaveric tissue resembles the human ACL RNA (N=6) degraded in vitro by restricted ribonuclease digestion.

When compared to values obtained from their corresponding non-degraded RNAs, PCR threshold cycle (Ct) values for 90 transcripts (84 extracellular matrix, 6 housekeeping) in degraded RNAs varied, with higher values reflecting both the expected loss of target templates in the degraded preparations as well as differences in the extent of degradation. For each ACL as well as the combined results from all six ACLs, relative Ct values for mRNAs in deteriorated preparations were closely connected with the equivalent levels in non-degraded RNA.


Similar, closely associated losses of housekeeping and non-housekeeping gene mRNAs were caused by nuclease- mediated degradation. Similar outcomes were obtained when RNA was digested in situ, demonstrating that in vitro digestion accurately simulated natural ribonuclease degradation of frozen and thawed ACL. Contrary to popular belief, we find that even from RNA preparations that are more than 90% degraded, as those derived from connective tissues used in biomechanical research, PCR-based expression analysis may still produce accurate mRNA profiles. Furthermore, data normalisation to suitable housekeeping transcripts enables valid quantitative comparisons between tissues with varying degrees of degradation.

Innovative digital tools have been proposed in clinical practise and research for the objective characterization of neuromuscular and movement diseases. Wearable technology stands out as a viable option for tele-monitoring, tele-rehabilitation, and tracking everyday activities among them. Wearable Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are inexpensive, small, and simple-to-use devices that analyse kinematics during various movements. Kinematic parameters might aid in the clinical assessment of the development of specific neuromuscular illnesses and serve as outcome indicators. The use of IMUs for the biomechanical evaluation of significant outcome metrics in people with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is described in the current review (DMD). The PRISMA approach was employed, and many databases were searched (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed). Twenty three studies in all were looked at and categorised based on the publication year, ambulatory or non-ambulatory individuals, and IMU location on the human body. While only a few studies have suggested using IMUs in non-ambulatory patients, the study highlights the recent regulatory recognition of Stride Velocity 95th Centile as a new endpoint in therapeutic DMD trials when monitored continuously via a wearable device. It is still difficult to identify clinically valid outcome indicators for the upper body.

Numerous chemicals that are physiologically active need to be prenylated in order to dissolve in the membrane and function. Isoprenoid or phytyl molecules from the aqueous phase of the cell are fused to aromatic compound molecules by proteins of the UBiA superfamily. In a vast variety of bacteria, fungi, and plants, you may find proteins containing UBiA structural domains. These PTases (prenyltransferases) are integral membrane proteins found in plants that bind prenyl diphosphate via Mg2+ ions or related cations like Mn2+, Co2+, or Ni2+. They include at least one aspartate-rich motif (e.g., NDxxDxxxD). All species depend on the prenylation reaction’s substrates for survival.


Prenylation is often a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that has been conserved throughout evolution. Four-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), Homogeneous Acid (HGA), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthalene acid (DHNA), and flavonoids chlorophyll or proheme are among the substances that can be prenylated by PTase. These substances are crucial for electron transport, anti-oxidation, and the formation of structural lipids for microbial cell walls and membranes.


Authors do not have acknowledgments currently.

Conflict of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Copyright: © 2022 Juliet Nissi.