Short Communication - Journal of Evolutionary Medicine ( 2023) Volume 11, Issue 1
Applications of Human Stem Cells in Human CivilizationBrachman Philip S*
Brachman Philip S, Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, United States, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JEM-23-92857; Editor assigned: 04-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. JEM-23-92857 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Jan-2023, QC No. JEM-23-92857; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JEM-23-92857 (R); Published: 30-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4303/JEM/236010
Rare changes in the coding and non-coding regions of the human genome have been linked to Meniere illness and genetic sensorineural hearing loss. A functional confirmation in cellular or animal models is necessary for the majority of these variants, which were categorised as probable pathogenic or variants of unclear importance. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells were developed as cellular models to study the interplay of genetic and environmental variables in the pathogenesis of inner ear diseases due to the challenges in obtaining human samples and growing opposition to animal experiments. It might be easier to comprehend the function of the variants during development if human sensory epithelia and neurons-like cells bearing the variants of interest were produced.
With the aid of these cellular models, we can investigate fresh methods for regenerating neurons as well as auditory and vestibular sense epithelia. This study offered some recommendations for its implementation in clinical practise and provided an overview of the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells in sensorineural hearing loss and Meniere disease. Liability for drug-induced seizures is a serious safety concern and the cause of drug research decline. Late research causes higher expenses, greater danger to humans, and later market release of novel therapeutics. In order to anticipate possible hazards for drug-induced seizures early in the drug discovery process, physiologically applicable, in vitro high-throughput screening tools (HTS) are urgently needed.
Using fluorescent dyes as a possible seizure risk predictor, we looked into drug-induced alterations in neural Ca2+ rhythms in hiPSC-derived neurons co-cultured with human primary astrocytes in both 2D and 3D versions. Using an FDSS kinetics analyzer, the dynamics of synchronised neuronal calcium spikes were evaluated. Both 2D and 3D hiPSC-derived neuron/ primary astrocyte co-cultures were used to capture drug reactions in synchronised Ca2+ oscillations. Positive controls (4-aminopyridine and kainic acid) and negative controls were used. (acetaminophen). Blinded experiments were then conducted for 25 medications with documented clinical seizure incidence.
In 2D hiPSC-neuron/primary astrocyte co-cultures, the positive predictive value (accuracy) based on substantial changes in the highest number of Ca2+ cycles among 25 reference medications was 91% vs. 45% in 3D co-cultures. These findings indicate that using an HTS method, measurements of Ca2+ oscillations in hiPSC-derived neurons co-cultured with primary astrocytes in 2D can identify drugs that change neuronal activity and may have a possible risk for seizures. HiPSC neurons have been tested using the Multi-Electrode Array (MEA) technology in in vitro tests, but this method has limitations in the early de-risking stages of drug development due to its comparatively poor throughput.
On the other hand, a much greater throughput method of in vitro screening has been developed using Ca2+ transient imaging using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes. According to this method, Ca2+ transients have the patterns of synchronised neuronal Ca2+ cycles, and modifications in the shape and frequency of these phenomena can easily identify agents that affect the ion channels and receptors on neurons. Similar to electrophysiological measurement techniques, intracellular Ca2+ levels that follow neuronal depolarization in a single neuron have also been imaged and assessed. However, the throughput of these measurements was severely constrained. But by setting up an HTS assay device based on a plate reader (in a 96- or 384-well configuration) and using fluorescence calcium dyes, this productivity restriction can be easily overcome.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as enoxacin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, and oxacillin, have been linked to central nervous system toxicity and have been shown to cause epileptic seizures by inhibiting GABA-A receptors and activating excitatory NMDA receptors. The precise mechanisms for antibiotic-induced seizures in humans, however, are not fully understood and may involve other, more complex mechanisms, including disruption of brain cell protein synthesis, oxidative stress, and encounters in patients with prior risk factors or co-medications like antiseizure medications. The present acute studies in hiPSC-derived neurons in vitro may therefore make it more challenging to identify seizure risk with antibiotics [1-4].
The current research demonstrates that neuronal in vitro tests based on Ca2+ transient analysis can be used for early drug optimisation. Surprisingly, the results indicate that our 2D model, as opposed to our 3D model, could greatly aid in the detection of neuronal active drugs with seizureogenic potentials. It is still early and difficult to develop human-based cellular HTS tests for use as a functional readout for drug-induced alterations in neuronal network activity. A few HTS formats and methods have, however, been defined. Rat cortical neuronal cultures and neuronal cultures generated from hiPSC have both been used to measure spontaneously synchronised Ca2+ rhythms.
Authors do not have acknowledgments currently.
Conflict of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
- X Zhu, B Zhang, Y He, J Bao, Liver organoids: Formation strategies and biomedical applications, Tiss Eng Regen Med, 18(2021)573–85.
- M Huch, H Gehart, A Ruben, K Hamer, F Blokzijl, et al. Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver, Cell, 160(2015)299–312.
- M Ogawa, S Ogawa, CE Bear, S Ahmadi, S Chin, et al. Directed differentiation of cholangiocytes from human pluripotent stem cells, Nat Biotech, 33(2015)853–61.
- YZ Nie, YW Zheng, K Miyakawa, S Murata, RR Zhang, et al. Recapitulation of hepatitis B virus–host interactions in liver organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells, EBioMedicine, 35(2018)114–23.
Copyright: � 2023 Brachman Philip S. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.