Opinion - Journal of Evolutionary Medicine ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 11

A Contemporary Epilogue on Antibiotic Resistance

Adriana Maircia Silveira*
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
*Corresponding Author:
Adriana Maircia Silveira, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Email: adrinutrick@gmail.com

Received: 02-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-22-86439; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. JEM-22-86439 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Nov-2022, QC No. JEM-22-86439; Revised: 23-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JEM-22-86439 (R); Published: 30-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.4303/JEM/236091


Bacterial infections in both people and animals have been virtually eliminated by the use of antibiotics. However, the development of so-called multi-drug resistance bacteria is due to antibiotic overuse and misuse. The integrity of the epithelial barrier and the stimulation of protective immunological responses are only two of the numerous roles that the gut microbiota should play in the host. There is proof that using antibiotics reduces the variety of gut microbiota species and causes metabolic changes, increased vulnerability to colonisation, and decreased release of antimicrobial peptides, which results in antibiotic resistance.

The main processes causing antibiotic resistance will be outlined in this overview. However, new discoveries on the possible application of complementary therapies to combat antibiotic resistance will be clarified. In this sense, phage treatment, faecal microbial transplantation, prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics will all receive specific attention.


The phenomenon of Antibiotic Resistance (AR), which mostly consists of learned adaptive mechanisms, occurs naturally. These defence systems assist microorganisms in fending off and surviving antibiotic attack. Due to a number of circumstances, AR is presently a significant issue. The vast majority of antibiotics that are used now were discovered before the 1980s. Chemical procedures like conjugation with additional substituents have improved some (e.g., fluoroquinolones, which are a result of the addition of a fluoride atom to already existing quinolones). The primary structure of the molecule does not change, therefore even though the derivates’ pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic qualities are enhanced; the problem of AR is not resolved by these developing processes.

Funds have been redistributed to research, prophylaxis, and equipment due to the current COVID-19 pandemic in order to increase survival and lower the likelihood of complications among infected individuals. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), which is thought to have only increased during this time as the focus shifted to the current pandemic, is also thought to have increased because of the extensive use of disinfectants, the widespread prescription of antibiotics, and the interruption of numerous other chronic conditions’ treatments due to the difficulty of accessing hospitals. Today’s antibiotics mostly target a small number of bacterial structures. Therefore, research should concentrate on creating compounds that target fresh bacterial locations and have novel action mechanisms. Increased expenses for research and the commercialization of novel antibiotics are just two of the economic challenges facing the development of antibiotics. Technical challenges in certain areas include a lack of infrastructure, skilled workers, and equipment. Globally enforcing international programmes should be developed to combat AR. DL-built computer systems are now used to create these apps.

Drug repurposing testing is a crucial area where AI technologies are useful. Combining the aforementioned techniques allows for the screening of known approved or unapproved compounds for antimicrobial properties. The interactions between these compounds and bacterial structures may be researched with the use of computer-generated simulations. Aspirin, which is today utilised in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties as an antiaggregant, is an excellent example of a medicine that has been repurposed. Today, the beta-blocker propranolol is also used to treat infantile hemangiomas, demonstrating the effectiveness of medication repurposing as a strategy for developing new antibiotics.

Drug repurposing can be very helpful in light of the fact that many new substances never make it to the clinical testing stage, and AI techniques can be advantageous by assisting with scanning and filtering the vast array of existing medications as well as medications that go through preclinical and clinical testing for alternative indications. Increased research potential is required in areas like genetic improvement of animals in order to find markers linked to increased innate resistance to pathogens, look for new antimicrobial agents, and understand the role of bacteria in the transmission of antibiotic resistance to human and animal microbial flora as part of efforts to reduce drug resistance among microorganisms.


The development of next-generation vaccinations and alternate uses of bacteriophages or their enzymes are the mainstays of the tactics now being used to combat antibiotic resistance. The utilisation of novel feeding-based regimens for animals that include prebiotics, probiotics, and bacterial by products and phytobiotics is also crucial. Additionally, proteins and peptides produced by bacteria, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, and mammals that have bactericidal action are of significant interest.

Copyright: © 2022 Adriana Maircia Silveria. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.