A Brief Discussion of the Therapeutic Potential of Plant-Based Metal NanoparticlesXi-jun Wang*
Xi-jun Wang, Department for the Development of Southwestern Endangered Medicinal Materials, Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, Guangxi, China, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. jem-22-74821; Editor assigned: 03-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. jem-22-74821 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Aug-2022, QC No. jem-22-74821; Revised: 22-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. jem-22-74821 (R); Published: 29-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.4303/jem/236076
Green nanoparticles are environmentally friendly and have shown promise in drug delivery. Thanks to the mutations and resistance of pathogens, these plant based nanoparticles can be effective alternatives to antibiotics in the fight against various pathogenic fungi. However, before they can be recommended as therapeutics, their toxicity in humans must be determined. The chapter discusses various metal nanoparticles used for human welfare, their chemical and biological synthesis as green nanoparticles, various applications and application limitations with a focus on their antifungal properties.
The approach to green synthesis of nanoparticles is environmentally friendly, non-hazardous, and nanoparticles have demonstrated improved biocompatibility for healthcare applications. Previous reviews have dealt with synthesis methods of green nanoparticles and their biological activities. This review covers not only general information on the green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles, but also focuses on the contemporary use of AgNP synthesis based on various medicinal and non-medicinal plants and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Furthermore, this review focuses on elucidating the basic mechanisms of anti-pathogenic microbial and anticancer activities of plant based AgNPs. Thus, this article provides a comprehensive analysis of plant mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their potential biomedical applications, including their mode of action and challenges, in a single window. Synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms and plants using green synthesis technology is biologically safe, cost effective and environmentally friendly. Plants and microorganisms have developed the ability to consume and accumulate inorganic metal ions from a neighbouring niche. Biological entities are known to synthesize nanoparticles extra and intracellular. The ability of a living system to use its own processes of organic chemistry to convert inorganic metal ions into nanoparticles has opened up a hitherto undiscovered area of biochemical analysis. Nanotechnology combined with biology gives rise to the advanced field of nano-biotechnology, which includes living things of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin, such as algae, cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi and plants. Each biological system differs in its ability to deliver metal nanoparticles. However, not all biological organisms can produce nanoparticles due to their enzymatic activities and internal metabolic processes. Therefore, biological entities or their extracts are used for the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles through the bio-reduction of metal particles leading to the synthesis of nanoparticles. However, due to enzymatic activities and internal metabolic processes, not all biological organisms can produce nanoparticles. As a result, biological entities or their extracts are used for the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles through the bio-reduction of metal particles leading to the synthesis of nanoparticles. These biosynthesized metal nanoparticles have a plethora of pharmaceutical applications, including drug or gene delivery, pathogen or protein detection, and tissue engineering. Efficient drug delivery and tissue engineering through nanotechnology have made significant contributions to translational research related to pharmaceutical products and their applications. This review covers both the green synthesis of nanoparticles using various biological systems and their applications. Green synthesis technology offers a clean, non-toxic and environmentally friendly method of synthesizing metal nanoparticles, which is gaining popularity due to its economic potential and feasibility. However, protocols must be further refined to make these methods cost effective and comparable to traditional methods for large scale nanoparticle production.
The development of more reliable and environmentally friendly processes for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a significant step forward in the field of applied nanotechnology. In addition, most of these strategies are still in the early stages of development and need to be addressed. These include nanoparticle stability and aggregation, as well as crystal growth, morphology, and size control. Another critical parameter that needs further investigation is the separation and purification of nanoparticles. Metal nanoparticles produced by plants and/or plant extracts are more stable than nanoparticles produced by other organisms. GMOs have a huge capacity for optimization to produce more proteins, enzymes and biomolecules needed for nanoparticle biosynthesis and stabilization. We believe that using genetic alterations to improve metal tolerance and accumulation capacity is a future approach to increase the production of metal nanoparticles using a “green synthesis” approach.
Conflict of Interest
Copyright: © 2022 Wang X. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.